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Battery Management System: Applications and Functionality

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  • 4 min read

Batteries, as we know them, have become the driving source of most of our electronics. They are a part of our laptops, phones, audio devices, cameras, and have even found a way into our vehicles. A perk such as providing a place for storage of energy produced from renewable sources is just one of many that batteries offer.

With all they do, one might for sure wonder as to what goes into a battery and how it does so much in an efficient way. In this article, we discuss some of the basics of the Battery Management System which controls how your battery functions and keeps it in shape.

What is a Battery Management System (BMS)?

We as humans consume a lot of things in a day from water, juices to various types of food. How food and water are distributed around the body is a function performed by the brain. The brain controls how much to use, how much to store and how much to use for temperature regulation.

Batteries, on the other hand, receive energy through energy outlets which they usually store and direct to the point of output when required. During the delivery of charge through batteries, factors such as heat and efficiency come under question. The points as mentioned earlier are what the Battery Management System looks after — from the charging of a battery to when it uses the energy and how it’s used.

Also read: What is battery calibration? How to calibrate your laptop and Android’s battery?

Type of batteries where BMS is needed

There are two kinds of batteries that are majorly used all around the world, they are –

  • The non-rechargeable alkaline type
  • The rechargeable lithium-ion type

The answer to the question asked is the lithium-ion type because of its rechargeable nature and tendency to generate heat while chemical changes occur. The regulation and maintenance of a battery is most manufacturers’ priority to ensure optimum performance for any consumer and this is where a BMS comes into play.

Where is BMS used?

The push for electric cars has been revolutionising the world one step at a time and the maximising the efficiency of their batteries to offer greater capabilities is one of the many places where a BMS finds use.

The other section being the smart batteries present in our smartphones and laptops.

What does a BMS do?

As shown by the human body analogy earlier in the article the Battery Management System is the brain of a battery pack.

Some of its functions are:

  • Managing and monitoring input and output of charge.
  • Safeguard the battery from harmful situations – due to overcharging or high temperatures.
  • Notifying a user about the battery’s condition.

How does a BMS function?

Controllers present inside a BMS enables most of these functions:

  1. Managing and monitoring input and output of charge.
    • It performs this function with the help of Coulomb counting, which uses the measured current flow.
  2. Safeguarding the battery from harmful situations
    • The code present in the controller of a BMS can stop the flow of current when the battery capacity has been reached thus preventing overcharging.
    • The temperature regulation is enabled mainly by the method of isolation, which can lead to the reduction of function of a heating battery.
  3. Notifying a user of the battery condition
    • The BMS through its interaction with the battery pack can inform the user of the current charge percentage, temperature conditions, and when the charge available is deficient that can cause degradation of the pack. Presenting the user with a chance to provide external measures to help mitigate the issue.

All the information present in this article, to some extent, accurately represents how a Battery Management System produced with today’s technology acts in our electronic devices. A BMS with AI integration is in the works to help with prediction and better analysis of working conditions and overall performance. The increase in efficiency of batteries is something that is made possible by a BMS and a future will hopefully see devices with barely any charging hassles.

Also read: What is Fast Charging? 5 common fast charging techs explained

Aryan Surendranath

Has an interest in technology and video games. When not doing anything related to either of these you will find him with his books, educational or not.

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