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Python vs Java vs C/C++: Key differences and Pros-Cons

A programming language is the communication link between computers and humans. It comprises a given set of instructions to produce any output. Python, Java, C, C++, C#, JavaScript and many others are the different programming languages used to develop websites, mobile and desktop applications, including games.

In this article, we will understand:

Also read: What’s the difference between Abstract class and Interface?


Types of Programming Languages

There are three types of programming languages: Low, High and Middle-level programming languages. They ideally differ in processing code based on compilers, which convert the code to machine language and interpreters, which process the code in the written language.

  • Low-level language is a machine-dependent language and works with 0 and 1. It does not require a compiler or an interpreter and is very fast. It is divided into two parts – machine language and assembly language.
  • High-level language is user-friendly and easy to read, write and understand. It requires a compiler or interpreter to execute the code. It is divided into three parts: procedural oriented programming (ex. C, FORTRAN, Basic), object-oriented programming (ex. Java, Python), and natural language.
  • Middle-level language lies between low-level and high-level language. It supports all the features of a high-level language while staying closely integrated with the low-level language. Examples include C and C++.

Also read: How to create an Android App?


What is Python? Pros and Cons

Python is a user-friendly programming language developed in 1991. It is open-source and finds major application in AI, ML, Big data, Robotics and GUI based desktop apps.

Python is a beginner’s general-purpose coding language. It is easily readable and is an interpreted and interactive high-level object-oriented language. It can be used for back-end development, software development, writing system scripts and also data science.

Python for your respective OS can be downloaded here. 
Advantages of PythonDisadvantages of Python
Ease in reading, writing and understanding.Isn’t ideal for games and app development.
Line-wise code execution of code makes debugging easier.Slightly slow because it uses an interpreter.
Has a broad inbuilt standard library.
Can be integrated with other programming languages like Java and C/C++.
Does not depend on the platform; once the code is ready, it can be run on any platform.
Provides good interfacing with most databases.

Also read: How to install Python on Windows?


What is Java? Pros and Cons

Developed by Sun Microsystem in 1995 and now owned by the Oracle, Java is a platform-independent, reliable and high-level programming language that finds use in back-end and the development of Android, desktop, games, mobile and numeric computing.

What's the difference between Java and Javascript?

Java is a server-side based programming language that can create four types of Java applications: standalone, web, enterprise and mobile.

Java for your respective OS can be downloaded here. 
Advantages of JavaDisadvantages of Java
Easy to learn, write, compile, and debug.Consumes excessive amounts of memory.
It can perform multiple tasks at the same time, that is multithreading.Slower than many other languages.
It is platform-independent and hence the same program can be run on any platform.Does not have a backup option.
It is a secure programming language because it does not use explicit pointers (pointers that users manipulate).

Also read: How to install Java on Windows 10?


What is C? How is it different from C++? Pros and Cons

A simple, flexible and general-purpose computing language, C, was developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie. It is a middle-level programming language that works majorly in designing apps like text editors, network devices, compilers, and several others.

Python vs Java vs C/C++: Key differences and Pros-Cons
Photo by Elodin Kaldwin | Wikimedia Commons

C was invented for UNIX OS specifically. Use cases of C include operating systems, language compilers and assemblers, language interpreters, databases and modern programs. C cannot be used for web development because it does not support object-oriented programming.

Advantages of CDisadvantages of C
Extremely easy to learn.Finding and debugging errors is difficult.
Efficient and fast yet flexible, portable and powerful.Does not support concepts such as encapsulation, polymorphism, abstraction and many others that supported by Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) languages.
It allocates memory during run time (Dynamic memory allocation).
Structured language.
Can be used to perform complex operations.
Base for many other languages.

C++ over C

C++ was developed in 1980 by Bjarne Stroustrup. It follows almost the same syntax and rules as C but includes OOPs, type checking, exception handling and more. It is also more compatible than C.

Unlike C, C++ can also be used for developing operating systems, browsers, and games. Unfortunately, it holds its disadvantage concerning security when compared to languages like Java and Python. Just like C, debugging errors in C++ is also difficult.

Also read: What’s the difference between C and C++?


Python vs Java vs C/C++

Python, Java and C/C++ have their advantages and disadvantages and are widely used through multiple applications. Yet, they hold their respective differences.

ParameterPythonJavaC/C++
Language LevelHighHighMiddle
Type of languageObject-oriented, structural language.General-purpose object-oriented, structural and procedural language. Procedural and structural language. C++ is a Object-oriented language.
Interpreter or CompilerInterpreterCompiler and InterpreterCompiler
Execution speedSlow execution due to use of interpreter. Execution is slower than C/C++ but faster than Python. Fast execution because it is uses a compiler.
InheritanceProvides single and multiple inheritance.Provides only partial multiple inheritance. Provides single and multiple inheritance.
Dependency on platformPlatform-independent. Platform-independent.Platform-dependent.
Use of classes while codingVariables and functions are used and can also be declared outside the class.The entire code is inside the class. Variables and functions are used outside the class.
Ideal code length for the same resultVery small codes – around four times smaller than Java.Extremely lengthy codes. Smaller codes – around 2 times smaller than Java.
Syntax normsNo compulsion of using semicolon (;). Very particular about the use of semicolon (;), comma (,) and period (.).Requires proper use of a semicolon (;).
ThreadingSupports multithreading. Built-in multithreading support. Does not support threading.
Library SupportHas a vast inbuilt library. Has a library support for most user interfaces. Library supported is pretty limited.
Operator OverloadingIt supports operator overloading. It does not support operator overloading.It supports operator overloading.
Memory accessDoes not use pointers or interfaces, but uses blocks and objects.Does not support the use of pointers. It uses interfaces, references and threads. Uses pointers, structures and unions. Also uses references in the case of C++.
Usage AI, ML, Big Data, Robotics and GUI-based desktop applications.Development of bank, retail, information technology, Android, Big Data, research community, web, and desktop apps.Text Editors, Compilers, Network devices, C++ can also be used to develop software.
Python vs Java vs C/C++

Also read: Android development: Java or Kotlin?

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